Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Names in Arab Culture, Names - Courtesies, Forms. Khalid Sheik (Sheikh) Mohammed.

Updates:  2017. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. See http://www.businessinsider.com/letter-khalid-sheikh-mohammed-delivered-white-house-2017-1;
2016:  Abu Zubaydah, see section C here, has applied for release from Guantanamo.  See  http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/24/us/abu-zubaydah-torture-guantanamo-bay.html?_r=0
2017:  See https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/19/us/politics/cia-torture.html

How old is his daughter now, if this analysis of naming is correct?  Father of Zubaydah?  And how ignorant and unjust are we. Are we?


 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
How Shall I Call Thee? 
May 31, 2012 post updated.

Parse the name, learn of the person. Naming conventions.

It is important, what and how we call our selves, our children, others. Learn the naming in Arab culture .  Example:  Khalid Sheik Mohammed.  Our western tradition of a first, middle and last name do not apply. Nor do our spellings.
"Arabic names won't go into English, exactly, for their consonants are not the same as ours, and their words, like ours, vary from district to district. There are some `scientific systems' of transliteration, helpful to people who know enough Arabic not to need helping, but a wash-out for the world. I spell my names anyhow, to show what rot the systems are."
Lawrence of Arabia, T.E. Lawrence, quoted at http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm

Western culture.  We have a more entertainment focus, emotional not necessarily fact-based, but aspirational.  Crofters may have named their child Robert, the Bruce.  Our names in our culture, not necessarily informative or reflecting an actual status.  See, for example, by way of update to a current western personage,  Trump Etymology, Sounds, Roots.  We may assert historical interest or adulation in our naming, and ancestral.  Some of us (me) are told that we are rooted from and so have had a Robert the Bruce in every generation since, so we are told. Who knows? Ask our latest Rob. Then ask -- how does the name shape the person. What legacy is passed on.

KHALID SHEIKH MOHAMMED
THE MAN, THE ACCUSATION, THE ROOTS

Take some Arab-culture names, and parse them out into the significance of each part.
 Back to the name:  What does his name mean, Khalid Sheik Mohammed, or Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.  We had earlier looked up his name, as it appeared at http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=1322866/  There are differing spellings - and the Mohammed may by Muhammad and variations. -Ed, -ad, -Mo, -Mu, just as in English, families and locales and language and dialect make a different imprint.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 
Khalid Sheik Mohammed 

Applying what we think we learned about the possible five forms to an Arab culture name,
  • the Khalid would be the "ism", or a personal proper masculine name. We think he would be addressed by this name in conversation. Is that so? It is an ancient name, meaning immortal, eternal. The 1990 census, US, showed many western-usage surnames as Khalid, see the frequency and percentages at http://www.census.gov/genealogy/names/dist.all.last/; and fewer Khalids as western-usage first names, see ://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/1/Khalid/.
  • the Sheik would be a "nasab", or pedigree, or  title of nobility, similar in rank to Baron, see the sca.org site, scroll down to the titles section.  
  • the Mohammed would be a form of the "laqab" or the name of an aspirational figure, one to be emulated. 
The power of naming, of respecting a name,  See FodderSight, Power of Naming. Some naming applicable in one period of history may not be part of the modern naming practice. For a start, see Wikipedia for an overview of westernized forms, and see a long list of names at http://www.behindthename.com/nmc/ara.php/.
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I.  ARAB CULTURE NAMES CAN COME IN FIVE FORMS. 
Do we have it right?

A. The ism, personal proper name

B. The kunya, honorific, as mother or father of someone

C. The nasab, pedigree

D. The laqab, aspirational qualities

E. The nisbah, occupation, tribe

IsKu NaLa Ni

These forms are laid out at numerous sites. We start with //heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm/  (here sca.org)  So, if no other designation is given for the source here, the information framework is from sca.org/.


A. The "ism" -

The ism is a personal proper name, perhaps given perhaps three days or perhaps seven days after birth, and not used after that in usual discourse. An adult would feel slighted at being addressed by that name, says the sca.org site.

The name may be, among others, Muhammed, Ibrahim, Ahmed.

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B. The "kunya" -


This is a name of honor, a surname as the mother or father of someone. For example,  
  • abu means father of, and
  • um or umm means mother of, then follows _________, usually the first son.  Married women are often known by the kunya. It is a name of respect. Fathers also may be known by their kunya name.
See Um Sulayn bint Malhan, and Umm Omara at Studying War, Women in War.
  • Bint.  Daughter of. 
  • Um.  Mother of.
When a full name is given, the kunya name precedes the personal name.  So, Abu Yusuf Hasan (the example at sca.org) means the father of Yusuf, Hasan.
  • Thought: Abu means father of. 
  • Then, Abu Ghraib, as in the prison, is named for the father of Ghraib? 
  • Who was Ghraib? Tried googling just "Ghraib" and find nothing. Have to go back. In Hussein's time, this was already a prison, see http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/10/040510fa_fact/  Had it once been a residence of Ghraib?
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C. The "nasab" or pedigree -
.
The nasab comes after the ism when you speak it. It may extend two or three generations, usually not more, sometimes to four. Sometimes the person is known by the nasab.

So,  
  • ibn means son of.  See Ibn Sa'ad , and Sa'ad ibn Wabiq Waqas at Studying War, sources for historical representations.  Here is a complication:  when the parent named in a nasab is identified by that parent's kunya name, then the ibn here becomes ibi.  At this site, "bin" is used instead of ibn.  Is that the difference between "period naming" and current? See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_name Osama bin Laden - Osama son of Laden?
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D.  The "laqab" -

The laqab can take several forms:

a) a combination of qualities or names like an epithet; 

This comes after the ism.  Examples from sca.org : al-Rashid, or the Rightly Guided; al-Fadi, the Prominent.  My brother used to go around calling himself Don the Great.  Now we know where that comes from.

b) a person worthy of aspiration.

c) a relationship to deity or religious figure
  • abd, or "servant of" for a man, and  
  • amat for "servant of" for a woman - 
d) or one of the names of Allah.  We think this form of laqab, a name of Allah, can take the place of an ism.
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E.  The "nisbah" -

The nisbah is a byname, giving occupation, tribal lineage, then geographic where a person lives, or where the person was born,  or other description.
  • Al- Some people are primarily known by the nisbah. For example, this man wrote down sayings (hadith) of the Prophet, and his full name is Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Bukari.  He is from Bukari and is known as al-Bukari or Bukari. 
 The nisbah can also replace the ism. Where a nisbah is used as an ism, there may be a written plus or + to show that. If there are several nisbahs, the occupation and tribe come before the place.

The nisbah follows the ism.  Or, if there is a nasab, it follows the nasab.

Examples from sca.org include al-Hallaj, for dresser of cotton; or al-Ayyubi for the tribe of Ayub; al-Dimashqi, from Damascus;

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II.  NAMES OF REAL PEOPLE  - 
we are trying to translate.

A. Persons from  http://www.brusselstribunal.org/pdf/Torture_in_Iraqi_Prisons.pdf /.*

Place noted -
  • Salah al-Din (Province) - Rectitude of the Faith. This was a name of title that a caliph would bestow on political or military leaders, and were highly regarded. See http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm/.  The al, or the, is hyphenated to the cognomen following it. The Faith. 
1. Um Khalid- This is a woman's name.  The "Um".  
  • The Khalid is masculine, and for the feminine (not using the Um) the namer would have added a or ah for Khalida or Khalidah. See ://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm/  
  • The um is the honorific kunya, or surname, as mother of someone - here, mother of Khalid.
2. Osama Ahmed Abu Al Aith - An outsider's question - Shouldn't the Al be hyphenated with the Aith? See 1.1.
  • Abu is father of -- here we get confused.  Abu is father of, but the al meanas "the" --- literally father of the Aith.  Aith is not listed at ummah.net.
But Aith is old Norse for isthmus, see Shetland Isles.Don't look for connections just because the spelling is the same, is that right?

3.  'Abu Hudayfa' Tahseen Al Azzawi - 
  • Father of Hudayfa, and the a probably means the feminine name form, so does he have a daughter.  


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B.  Person from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/13/AR2009011303372.html; and ://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jan/15/guantanamo-bush-administration-torture-qahtani

 Mohammed al-Qahtani  - Muhammed once meant praiseworthy, now may have been bestowed as a name because it is the name of the Prophet, see http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm/  We do not see al-Qahtani listed in the masculine cognomens listed as isms at the sca.org site, and Babelfish does not do Arabic. It would be a) a respectful or aspirational, or  n) the alternative - giving the occupation, lineage or geographical location of residence or birth  "the ___(something)________________", we think. Quhtani is not listed at ummah.net/

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C.  Person from ://www.cjr.org/politics/the_forgotten_story_of_abu_zub.php

Abu Zubaydah - (kunya) - the father of Zubaydah. This is a feminine ending, so does he have a daughter named Zubaydah, like Tahseen? Yes, must be.  And the name of his little girl, or is she adult now, Zubaidah, means excellent.  See http://www.ummah.net/family/fem.html#Z

Look up all these names. So many choices for shaping your child's sense of self.

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D.  Person Khalid Sheik Mohammed - now moved to the top here.

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III.  THE IMPORTANCE

A.  Seeing persons as persons, not labels.  A person whose name befuddles us, is less of a person. We do not know what to call him. It is easier to demean.
  • Torture Bob?  No.  
  • Torture Ahmed abu Z_____________ibn________al___________________________?  Sure.  And be sure to show him either bedraggled and sweaty, or bearded and photoshopped. The person and the acts are one thing.  The propaganda to persuade before the facts are out, is another. Taint the jury pool.
B.  Forced confessions.  If the person is a label and not a person, then any authority forcing anything becomes easier to accept by the outside population. Is that so?

Khalid Sheik Mohammed in particular forces us to look at the issue of forced confessions on a horrendous scale.  Whether in his case the particular confession was true or not, what other geniis are let out of that bottle.

To be feared:

a) torture as first recourse, if ever; 
b) torture to force out a desired story line; even if they lie; 
c) torture to serve a need of the torturer; can power be contained

See torture, and the alternatives we may have had, and why anyone chooses torture instead (depends on the agenda, what you want - truth or what you demand), at Sassafras and History, Truth Serum or Torture, and Why.



The Name as the Human Connector. 

We like to think we are individuals. How to communicate respect for that specific complex of physical and mental difference? Address the person. Speak the name aloud. 1) Abdullah Ghulam Rasoul. 2) Said Ali al-Shihri. 3)  Ala al-Din. That last one would be Aladdin, to most of us. Hello. But what does the name mean? Is there a familiar "first name" so that we use "Abdullah" when we are conversing. Or "Said" because that name comes first, our usual place for the familiar first name.

Naming someone is important. And to name the person correctly. We don't like to be mispronounced, to hear a wrong nickname used by someone, especially someone not entitled by long association to use any nickname. The car salesman calling you Harry when you are Harold. Or honey. To greet someone, to apologize, to address issues, the name itself is a vital link to civilized talk. How to understand the names of those you are addressing. What if their cultures include a variety of information in the name: and do not limit naming to first-middle-last, with a prefix for status or occupation, and a suffix for linear descendants, males line only need apply. How to learn it in advance.



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*This particular site offers testimony of treatment of prisoners by Iraqi police, or other names of those interested, with this included -- "Can you believe that now the Americans have stopped torturing like the way they used to in Abu Ghraib now they let the Iraqis do their job for them." Testimony at page 11. We do not try to sort out who did what to whom. The names here designated from that site represent those in custody of Iraqis, we believe. Others, other. See also http://www.sweetness-light.com/archive/ny-times-claims-iraqis-torture-captives-for-us

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

GOP. Soliloquy. To speak, or not to speak. Annotated. To condone, or not to condone.

GOP Soliloquy: *
To condone or not to condone. 
What risks there be.
Job or country?

To speak, or not to speak -- that is the question:


Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to condone
The slings and arrows of the Party's Chosen
Or to speak against his sea of troubles 

Wild boar, symbolizing ferocity , Silkeborg Museum, DK

And by opposing end them. To speak, to die --
No more--and by speech to say we end
The heartache, the thousand political shocks
Held office is heir to. 'Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. Out of office, to sleep--
To sleep -- perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub,
For, in ouster, un petit mal, what dreams come
When we have shuffled off this power coil,
Must give us pause. There's the respect
That makes calamity of over-staying.
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The charlatan's wrong, the narcissist's contumely
The pangs of voter rejection, law's delay,
The disrespect of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of th' unworthy takes,
When he himself might his Quietus make
With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that dread of something after holding office,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprise of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry
And lose the name of action. -- Soft you now,
The fair Voter! -- Nymph,*** in thy orisons
Be my condoning, or speech, remembered.

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*  From William Shakespeare, Hamlet, see http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/search/search-results.php

**  Provenance. Silhouette illustrating Hans Christian Anderson in his house, Odense DK. A man who tiptoed on some issues, not others.

*** Shakespeare, from the context, however, does not appear to refer to the immature insect, but to the Greek mythological nymph, see http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Nymph